Governance/Transparency/Corruption/The Resource Curse — Reports, Etc.

 

ARTICLES / REPORTS / ETC.

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A Global Partnership in the Fight against Corruption. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, World Bank Group. For too long the focus of anticorruption efforts has targeted developing countries. * Developing countries get named and shamed. * Developing countries are rewarded or punished based on compliance with standards set in the developed world. * Far too often, the public opinion in developed nations seems to forget that corruption is not a developing country problem only. By no means do I want to relieve countries that suffer endemic corruption from their responsibility. However, corruption in developing countries is also the result of an enabling and permissive global environment. All countries are responsible for this environment, particularly those with greater economic and political leverage. Developing countries might have a long way to go in improving transparency, accountability, and good governance. However, progress made by these countries will be deemed insufficient, as long as the international financial architecture provides a risk-free alternative for the concealment of stolen funds. As long as kleptocrats think that they have a good chance of getting away with their theft, they will be looking for opportunities to steal. Viewed in this way, the failure of the international community to solve this situation actually sabotages (undermines) the efforts undertaken by developing countries.


Africa Progress Panel – Africa Progress Report 2013: Equity in Extractives

Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance

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Africa’s War on Corruption.  Mwangi S. Kimenyi & John Mukum Mbaku. The Brookings Institution. One of the most important policies to ensure the continent’s economic growth is to fast track Africa’s war on corruption. Although most African countries have set up elaborate anticorruption units, these bodies are largely ineffective and some have even been compromised by the appointing authorities.  In some African countries, the war on corruption has been derailed by selective allegations and prosecutions largely influenced by ethnicity, while in others the judiciaries have been overly compromised and become ineffective in the adjudication of corruption cases. There is a pressing need for national governments and development partners to prioritize the strengthening of autonomous anticorruption bodies and the reforming of national judiciaries. Those countries in Africa that succeed in the war on corruption will win handsome returns by way of economic growth in 2011 and beyond.

Why fighting corruption in Africa fails. William Gumede. Pambazuka News. November 14, 2012. Most well-intentioned corruption busting remedies in Africa fail because the root causes of corruption on the continent are often poorly understood.

Q&A with John Endres, CEO of Good Governance AfricaThe governance community has a new member: Good Governance Africa, launched in February 2012. Who is this new kid on the block and what is it trying to achieve? Constanza Montana, editor of Africa in Fact, interviewed the CEO to find out…

What is the state of governance in Africa? In general terms, African governance can be described as poor, but improving. The 2011 Failed States Index by Foreign Policy magazine and the Fund for Peace lists all African countries as being borderline or worse. But in the last 12 years, only 10 coups have taken place compared to the 20 coups per decade between 1960 and 2000. Elections and peaceful transfers of power have increased. Citizen rights and the rule of law are still weak in most countries. Economic growth benefits small elites rather than the broader population.

What are the positive examples that stand out? Other than islands like Mauritius and Cape Verde, Botswana, a country with a homogenous population dominated by one large corporation, and Ghana, which is a clichéd example, it is hard to think of any examples. I’d hesitate even to include South Africa. …

Transparency Alone Fails to Reveal Corruption. Good Governance Africa. April 2013. A voluntary programme to promote greater transparency in oil, gas and mining [the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)] may have entrenched devious ways of concealing bribes and other forms of corruption. Mark Thomas looks at this initiative and shows how corrupt governments and private companies circumvent it.

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Is good governance really key to success? Go figure. Frederick Golooba-Mutebi. March 23, 2013. How many successful economies or agricultural sectors have their origins in good governance, democracy, or civil society activism?

How to Get Things Done: Influence Lessons from Africa’s New Generation of LeadersTony Blair Africa Governance Initiative. March 26, 2013. In a wide ranging article for Forbes Online Joseph Grenny talks to AGI’s Nick Thompson and Andy Ratcliffe about the organisation’s approach and their experiences in supporting several visionary governments in Africa….

Bye-bye Big Men: Governance in much of Africa is visibly improving, though progress is uneven. The Economist. March 2, 2013.

NEPAD CEO applauds Africa’s progress in good governanceNEPAD

Oby Ezekwesili: Corruption is a cancer and when you have cancer you don’t go taking Panadol. SunNewsOnline.com (Nigeria). April 1, 2013

Challenges Faced by Emerging Energy Producers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Averting the ‘Resource Curse’. John O. Kakonge.  Global Policy. 31 January 2013. This synopsis briefly explains the challenges faced by African countries with emerging oil and gas industries in bringing widespread economic advancement to their countries. Although, on the surface, the challenges appear straightforward, in essence they often prove to be very taxing and intractable. They are closely interrelated and, regrettably, have lingering consequences, which have come to be known as the ‘resource curse’.

Is Africa Making Progress in Tackling Corruption? AllAfrica.com. December 6, 2012.

Citizen voice and state accountability: towards theories of change that embrace contextual dynamics. Overseas Development Institute (UK). 14 Mar 2012

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To Maintain Growth, Africa Must Improve Governance. Scott B. MacDonald. World Politics Review. 11 April 2013.

Africa: ‘Hybrid’ Governance and Africa – Examining a Development Buzzword.  Tom Goodfellow. AllAfrica.com. 4 April 2013

Women’s Day: South Africa’s Corruption Crusader. Nicky Rehbock. Transparency International.  March 8, 2013

African Catholic bishops speak out on good governance and democracy. Vatican Radio.  February 19, 2013.

A Discussion with Former President Olusegun Obasanjo.  Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs, Georgetown University.  This discussion between former Nigerian president Olusegun Obasanjo and Angela Reitmaier, an affiliate of WFDD, took place in Berlin on February 12, 2013, when the former president gave an introductory keynote on “Africa and Good Governance” at the Humboldt-Viadrina School of Governance. Former president Obasanjo reflects on ways to fight corruption, including for faith-based organizations, and to end the conflict with Boko Haram. He describes his relationship to God and speaks about the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the African Peer Review Mechanism at their 10th anniversary.

A Year of Corruption-Busting in South Africa. Nicky Rehbock. Transparency International. February 7, 2013.

Sustainable economic development: governance matters most. (Video). 25 Jan 2013. The Guardian. Referencing the BCG Sustainable Economic Development Assessment, Douglas Beal of the Boston Consulting Group and Andy Ratcliffe of the Africa Governance Initiative, share lessons on how developing countries are turning wealth into wellbeing for their citizens.

West African Youth Leaders Unite to Fight Corruption. Kathrin Schraft. Transparency International. January 29, 2013.

Reducing Corruption in African Developing Countries: The Relevance of EGovernance. N. D. Oye. Greener Journals of Social Sciences. January 2013.

Corruption and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Emerging Research Agenda Paul Lagunes, Malte Lierl, Itumeleng Makgetla, Lucy Martin, Pia Raffler and Rory Truex. Anti-Corruption Research Network.  2012. ACRN Contributing Editor Paul Lagunes and his colleagues from Yale University share their insights from a workshop on corruption and governance which took place in Cape Town this summer. The workshop helped shed light on some critical insights about the state of research on corruption and governance in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the participants examined the gap between academic research and the needs of activists and practitioners and developed some suggestions on what a future research agenda could look like.

African elites must rethink their relationship with ChinaWaiswa Nkwanga. Africa at LSE. November 6, 2012.

Is China good or bad for Africa? Peter Eigen. Africa Progress Panel. 29 October 2012
China’s growing presence in Africa is one of the region’s biggest stories, but even seasoned analysts cannot decide whether this booming relationship is good or bad for Africa, writes Panel member Peter Eigen, in a blog for CNN. Critics says Chinese strategy is entirely self-promotional, aimed at maintaining access to Africa’s precious mineral resources even when that means propping up odious governments.

Blog: Corruption in Liberia, Perceptions and Reality. Robert Simmons. Tony Blair Africa Governance Initiative. December 7, 2012.

African Media Urged to Push for “Zero Tolerance to Corruption”.  Mike Adenugha. The Nigeria Voice. December 10, 2012.

Corruption index 2012 from Transparency International: Find Out How Countries Compare. Simon Rogers. The Guardian (UK). December 5, 2012.

Botswana Again Wins Title as Africa’s Least Corrupt Nation. Anita Powell. Voice of America. December 4, 2012.

Corruption and National Development in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. Samson Adesote and John Ojo Abimbola. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 2012

Government and the process of governance in Africa.  Joy Alemazung.  Global Governance Institute. November 2012. Democracy and good governance are two concepts that are often perceived as closely interlinked. This paper uses different examples from Africa to show that these ideas are, in fact, not only different, but are endowed with dimensions which also allow them to exist independent from one another.

The Effectiveness of Anti-Corruption Agencies in Enhancing Good Governance and Sustainable Developmental Growth in Africa: The Nigerian Paradox Under Obasanjo Administration, 2003 – 2007. Stephen Ocheni and Basil C. Nwankwo. April 15, 2012.

Will the fruits of Africa’s commodity boom be lost to corruption? Carl Dolan.  Transparency International.  4 April 2012As the prices of oil and other non-renewable commodities begin to soar once again, anti-corruption activists from DR Congo, Ghana, Liberia and Zimbabwe were in Brussels last week with the message that there is a once-in-a-generation opportunity to get their economies on a sustainable development path, a path that has been blocked by corruption in the past. EU legislators can do their bit by passing robust new transparency rules for the extractive and forestry sectors.

Apparently Transparent: Does Accountability Deliver? Rosemary McGee. The Broker Online.  June 10, 2011. Transparency and accountability initiatives aim to combat corruption and inefficiency, and improve how aid is channelled. How effective are these initiatives, and how can their impact be measured?

Good Governance Is Key for Africa’s Development. Peter Eigen. 16 February 2011

We at the Africa Progress Panel consider good governance, both on the continent and across the rest of the world, as the key enabling factor for Africa’s development. While we have seen great progress towards a more democratic and rules-based political culture since the early 1990s, advances have become patchier, and democratic recessions more frequent recently. We have seen the return of coups and efforts by leaders to perpetuate their rule, including by abolishing constitutional term limits or outright election rigging. Add to this the rise of China as an investor who does not ask questions about good governance, and the situation has become worrisome.

Good Governance Still Africa’s Achilles HeelIsobel Coleman and Charles Landow. Council on Foreign Relations. Huffington Post. January 5, 2011

Good governance: central to all progress.  André-Michel Essoungou. Africa Renewal. August 2010

For African business, ending corruption is ‘priority number one’.  Africa Renewal. August 2010

Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? Ivar Kolstad and Arne Wigg. World Development. 2009. Transparency is increasingly viewed as central to curbing corruption and other dysfunctions of resource-rich developing countries. The international development community has pushed transparency in resource revenues through such initiatives as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Despite the popularity of the transparency concept, its role in reducing corruption and averting the resource curse is poorly understood. This paper reviews the main mechanisms through which transparency can reduce corruption. It argues that transparency is insufficient in itself, and needs to be complemented by other types of policies. Transparency reform should focus on the areas most important to alleviating the resource curse. In view of the resource curse literature, the emphasis of the EITI on revenues rather than on expenditures appears misplaced.

Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa. Stephanie Hanson. Council on Foreign Relations. August 6, 2009.

Corruption in Nigeria: A New Paradigm for Effective Control. Victor E. Dike.  AfricaEconomicAnalysis.org. January 23, 2008.

Corruption Ebbs in Africa.  Policyinnovations.org. July 16, 2007. The World Bank reports that corruption is on the wane in Africa. Devin Stewart interviews Nairobi-born publisher Laurance Allen about the progress he has seen in Africa over several decades.

Good Governance in Africa. Allan Savory. Savory Institute. 2007

Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria. O. Fagbadebo. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. 2007

The other side of corruption. Bruno Gurtner.  Alliance Sud. 17 December 2006

Addressing Oil Related Corruption in Africa: Is the Push for Transparency Enough? Afeikhena Jerome, Senyo Adjibolosoo and Dipo Busari. IntegrityNigeria.org. June 2005.

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AfriMAP presents assessment of APRM to the UN. 2008 Background paper

Doha 2009: Civil society protection a priority; other measures needed to complement EITI implementation. The EITI needs to redouble its efforts to protect civil society activists and ensure that civil society is an equal partner in efforts to achieve transparency in natural resource revenue management.

Fourth EITI Global Conference, Doha. Presentations, Reports, etc. 16-18 February 2009

EITI Progress Report

PWYP Statement to the African Union: For an open and inclusive debate on revenue transparency. 5 Feb 2009. Publish What You Pay Africa. We are representatives of African civil society organisations that are members of the Publish What You Pay (PWYP) global coalition…We are deeply concerned by the increasing threats facing transparency and anti-corruption campaigners in Africa. The past years have seen repeated incidents of intimidation and harassment of civil society leaders in a number of African countries including Angola, Congo Brazzaville, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Niger and Nigeria.

PWYP communique issued at the 2008 PWYP Africa regional meeting, Nigeria. Sep 2008. Publish What You Pay International

PWYP calls on oil and gas companies to do more to fight corruption and poverty. 30 Apr 2008. Publish What You Pay International

PWYP Norway Civil Society Capacity Building Program


Drilling Down: The Civil Society Guide to Extractive Industry Revenues and the EITI. Revenue Watch Institute. May 2008. Download Full Text of Drilling Down (pdf)

Drilling Down: EITI Audit and Accounting Guide for Civil Society

Study: Innovations in EITI Implementation

Promoting the Revenue Transparency Index

Managing Resource Revenues at the Sub-National Level. Helping Local Leaders and Communities Manage Resource Revenues. Revenue Watch Institute.

RWI Sub-National Capacity Building Pilot Projects

New Guide for Legislators Gives Tools for Strengthening Transparency. Revenue Watch Institute.

Download full text of the Guide (pdf)

RWI Parliamentary Capacity Building

EITI Chair, ExxonMobil President Launch Implementation Guide for Businesses   The EITI Business Guide

U.S. Legislation: The “Practice What You Preach” Bill  Legislation: U.S. and EU Listing Requirements


Oil-Rich Nigerian Province Convenes Companies, Citizen Leaders and Government Officials for Landmark Transparency Review. Leaders from the international oil industry and the regional government of Bayelsa State gathered with citizen groups today to pioneer a more transparent and collaborative oversight process for oil revenues in the strife-torn Niger Delta.

Bayelsa State Leads Fight for Responsible Government in Niger Delta with New Transparency Effort.Leaders from the international oil industry and the regional government of Bayelsa State gathered with citizen groups today to pioneer a more transparent and collaborative oversight process for oil revenues in the strife-torn Niger Delta.

AUDIO: RWI Economist Explains Links Between Transparency and Development Challenges. Revenue Watch Institute Senior Economist Antoine Heuty spoke to Senegal’s West Africa Democracy Radio about Nigeria’s subnational project, the Bayelsa Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (BEITI), which was launched on November 5. Heuty also spoke about the link between the lack of transparency and corruption, violence, and failed development; the importance of civil society engagement in transparency reform; and RWI’s history of transparency advocacy in the extractive sector.

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Brown plans global scrutiny of tax havensThe Guardian, March 23, 2009

Tax haven crackdown could deliver $120bn a year to fight poverty. Oxfam. 13 March 2009. Developing countries miss out on up to $124 billion every year in lost income from offshore assets held in tax havens, international agency Oxfam said today ahead of the G20 Finance Ministers’ meeting….

Global Task Force Links Financial Integrity and Economic Development. Global Financial Integrity. January 15, 2009. The Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development is a unique global coalition of civil society organizations and more than 50 governments working together to address inequalities in the financial system that penalize billions of people. The opacity and complexity of the financial system, enabled by financial institutions, laundering techniques and more than 70 secrecy jurisdictions, is at the heart of the current financial crisis and significantly impedes the ability of poor countries to develop their economies. Task Force Members

Task Force Document: “The Case for Global Financial Transparency” – Economic Transparency: Curtailing the Shadow Financial System. Global Financial Integrity/Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development. Feb 2009. Executive Summary: We may be at a rare moment when the interests of rich and poor countries are synonymous. At the heart of the current worldwide economic crisis is a lack of transparency in the global financial system. This is the end product of a half century of creating and expanding a shadow financial structure comprising tax havens, secrecy jurisdictions, disguised corporations, anonymous trust accounts, and fake foundations. Also included in this system are trade mispricing mechanisms, money laundering techniques, and gaps left in western laws that facilitate the movement of corrupt, criminal, and commercially tax-evading money across borders. Some estimates suggest that as much as half of global trade and capital movements pass through this shadow financial system. The consequences of this murky structure and the money it moves are now clear: …In developing countries, an estimated $1 trillion a year of illicitly generated money is shifted abroad through this system, constituting the most damaging economic condition hurting the poor, undermining poverty alleviation and delaying sustainable growth. ….read more

Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002-2006. Global Financial Integrity. January 2009. A new report shows that the developing world is losing an increasing amount of money through illicit capital flight each year.

The Ugliest Chapter in Global Economic Affairs Since Slavery. Raymond Baker, Director, Global Financial Integrity, on the international structure that supports the flow of illicit money across borders, and the harmful impact these illicit flows have on economic growth and poverty alleviation in poorer countries.

Catching up with Corruption. The American Interest. Sept-Oct 2008. GFI director Raymond Baker and co-authors John Christensen of Tax Justice Network and Nicholas Shaxson of Chatham House examine the links between corruption and international development shortfalls and the future of anti-corruption and anti-illicit financial practices legislation.

– Analysis: Corruption Remains Aid Obstacle

– Baker Discusses Illicit Financial Flows

 Unrecorded Cash Flows Leaving Developing World Outpaces AidBloomberg, January 7, 2009

– A chance to crack down on Africa’s loot-seeking elites: A silver lining in this grim economic cloud is an opportunity to clean up the banks and halt the corrupt capital flightThe Guardian, October 7, 2008

For more information on this topic, visit our Illicit Capital Flows, Tax Evasion, and African Development web page.

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Undue Diligence: How banks do business with corrupt regimes. Global Witness. By doing business with dictators and their families, banks are helping those who are using state assets to enrich themselves or brutalize their own people.

2008 Bribe Payers Index (BPI). Transparency International

Progress Report 2008 – OECD Anti-bribery Convention: Enforcement of the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Transparency International. June 2008


Resource Dependence and Budget Transparency. Probes the question of an inevitable link between natural resource abundance and opaque budgeting. Revenue Watch Institute.

Report: Resource Dependence and Budget Transparency

Open Budget Index 2008. Open Budget Initiative. The state of budget transparency around the world is deplorable. This encourages inappropriate, wasteful, and corrupt spending and—because it shuts the public out of decision-making—reduces the legitimacy and impact of anti-poverty initiatives.

Open Budgets. Transform Lives. The Open Budget Survey 2008 (Full report)

The Transparency Gap: Resource-Dependent Countries Perform Poorly on Open Budget Index

AUDIO: RWI/IBP Panel Discussion on the 2008 Open Budget Index

Our Money, Our Responsibility: A Citizens’ Guide to Monitoring Government Expenditures. International Budget Project, 2008. This Guide offers an overview of government budget implementation processes and provides practical, tested tools that can be used by civil society organizations interested in monitoring government expenditures.

Aid, Rents and the Politics of the Budget Process. Institute of Development Studies. This paper analyses the impact of political institutions and budget procedures on budget governance in aid- and resource-dependent countries.

Impact of Civil Society Budget Work: Case Studies. International Budget Project

Civil Society, Legislatures, and Budget Oversight. International Budget Project

Budget monitoring and policy influence: Lessons from civil society budget analysis and advocacy initiatives. Overseas Development Institute, March 2007

Budget Analysis and Policy Advocacy: the Role of Non-governmental Public Action. Institute of Development Studies

Strengthening Legislative Financial Scrutiny in Developing Countries. Report prepared for the UK Department for International Development, London School of Economics and Political Science


Reforming corruption out of Nigerian oil? Part one: Mapping corruption risks in oil sector governance. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre. This U4 Brief attempts to shed light on how public sector institutions governing the Nigerian oil sector permit the existence of corruption.

Ghana Sheds Light on Oil Contracts. Revenue Watch Institute. The Government of Ghana has declared its decision to publicly disclose all present and future contracts with oil companies.

Ghana’s Big Test: Oil’s Challenge to Democratic Development. Oxfam America and the Integrated Social Development Centre (ISODEC), Ghana.

Oil ‘hot spot’ Ghana must proceed with caution. Oxfam

ISODEC on Control of Nation’s Natural ResourcesThe Ghanaian Times. Integrated Social Development Centre (ISODEC), Ghana

Uganda Urged to ‘Audit’ IOCsOil and Gas Journal

Niger: Parliamentarian Questions Assembly President on Mining Permits. February 5, 2009. While the country of Niger, in Western Africa, is reaping greater benefits from mining revenues, its progress towards transparency is more uneven. In the wake of questionable mining permit grants, parliamentarian Mahaman Nomao Djika has called for a more open grants process in a public letter to President of the National Assembly Mahaman Nomao Djika Niamey.

Gabon: President’s juicy accounts frozenAfricaNews

Getting a Better Deal from the Extractive Sector: Concessions Negotiation in Liberia, 2006-2008. Revenue Watch Institute. Download Full Text of Getting a Better Deal from the Extractive Sector

OSI Forum: Getting a Better Deal from the Extractive Sector—Concession Negotiation in Liberia.  Audio. OSI-New York Event, February 26, 2009.

Liberia Local Governance Toolkit. Center for Transparency and Accountability in Liberia/Global Integrity Local Integrity Initiative.


Global Integrity Index – Country Reports   Local Integrity Initiative

Key Findings – Global Integrity Report: 2008 The Future of the Anti-Corruption Movement. Nathaniel Heller, Global Integrity

A Users’ Guide to Measuring Corruption. Global Integrity & UNDP

Global Integrity Dialogues workshops.

Freedom of Information: A Comparative Study. Global Integrity

Low Scores: Africa and the Middle East
In 2008, three of the 57 countries we studied did not have a freedom of information (FOI) law: NigeriaGhana and Iraq. Our researcher in Nigeria noted that the FOI bill has been sitting in the Nigerian congress since it was first proposed in 1999. We found a similar situation in Ghana, where an article exists in the Ghanaian constitution to ensure citizen rights to information, but this article had not yet been brought before Parliament for approval. …One of our Key Findings for the Global Integrity Report: 2008, was that public access to information is the most serious transparency issue facing many Middle Eastern and North African nations. Privacy International’s map on National Freedom of Information Laws, Regulations and Bills 2008 only confirms our assessment of the region. In regional terms, the Middle East and North Africa are the worst in the world at FOI, which we discussed at length in a previous analysis.


Freedom of the Press – Country Reports. Freedom House

Media Sustainability Index Documents Challenges Facing African Media  Media Sustainability Index (MSI) for Africa

Video presentation at the National Endowment for Democracy, Washington, DC

The Africa study revealed some common findings across countries, such as a relationship between professional journalism and the financial and managerial footing of media outlets. In particular, a lack of financial strength at media outlets results in low (and sometimes no) pay for journalists, in turn resulting in news and information that is vulnerable to, and indeed often strongly influenced by, political or business interests. The MSI detailed pressures on the media in every country, from subtle political coercion to outright violence and severe prosecutions.

IREX Media Sustainabilty Index for 2008

This report “provides in-depth analyses of the conditions for independent media in 76 countries” and addresses media as a system unto itself, looking at the fields of print and broadcast journalism in their own context rather than through the broader lenses of corruption or freedom of expression.

Civil Society Development. IREX

Reporters Without Borders – Africa    Reporters Without Borders – Press Freedom Index

Close-up on… Africa

Strengthening Africa’s Media. UN Economic Commission for Africa

Media Freedom, Governance and Transparency. Raymond Louw, South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA), September 2008. ‘Can good governance exist without a free and independent media?’ …Africa’s premier governance and accountability tool – The APRM – seems to have ignored the issue….A possible reason is that 48 of the continent’s 53 countries have ‘insult’ and criminal defamation laws which criminalize critical reporting of the conduct of public servants.

Media and Good Governance Briefing. Department for International Development (UK), 2008

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Strengthening African Governance: Ibrahim Index of African Governance 2008The 2008 RankingsMo Ibrahim Foundation

An African Scorecard. African governance is getting better. Robert Rotberg. International Herald Tribune

Press Release   Briefing Note   The full 2008 Ibrahim Index

Mo Ibrahim Foundation announces next steps to strengthen Ibrahim Index. 6 October 2008


Innovations in Accountability and Transparency through Citizen Engagement – The Role of Donors in Supporting and Sustaining Change. Summary Report from a workshop held at the Bellagio Study and Conference Centre, June 16–20, 2008.

Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, Voice and Accountability Topic Guide.

Accountability Briefing. Department for International Development, 2008

Briefing Note on Civil Society and Good Governance. Sept 2007.


Who Answers to Women? – Gender and Accountability. February 2009. United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

Launch of “Getting Ahead: Testimonials of Women in Politics”. The iKNOW Politics film features the stories of prominent women leaders from Burundi, Canada, Ireland, Jordan, Namibia, Norway, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, and Uganda. 09 March 2009


Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative – World Bank & UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

Bank, UN Join in Stepped- Up Drive to Help Countries Recover Looted Assets

Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative: Challenges, Opportunities, and Action Plan

Improving governance for development. World Bank, Mar 05, 2009

Aid Effectiveness and Governance: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Daniel Kaufmann

Daniel Kaufmann’s Farewell Lecture – Governance, Crisis, and the Longer View: Unorthodox Reflections on the New Reality. World Bank

Progress report on the first year of implementation of the World Bank Group’s Governance and Anticorruption (GAC) strategy. October 2008 Board Presentation: 1-year progress report

Governance at the Sector Level. World Bank

Global Multistakeholder Engagement. World Bank

Governance Diagnostic Capacity Building. World Bank

Communications for Governance and Accountability Programme (COMMGap), World Bank

Demand for Good Governance Tables. World Bank, 2008

Demand for Good Governance Stocktaking. Initiatives Supporting DFGG Across World Bank Group Sectors and Regions, The Demand for Good Governance Learning Summit. World Bank, 2008

Generating Genuine Demand with Social Accountability Mechanisms. Workshop summary report. World Bank, 2007

Strengthening World Bank Group Engagement on Governance and Anticorruption. World Bank


A Centre of Excellence for Anti-Corruption Professionals. The INTERPOL-UNODC Anti-Corruption Academy.

International Anti-Corruption Academy Established

UN partners with INTERPOL to set up world’s first anti-corruption academy

South-south anti-corruption cooperation mechanisms. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

UNCAC and the participation of NGOs in the fight against corruption. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

The impact of strengthening citizen demand for anti-corruption reform. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

Political economy analysis of anti-corruption reforms. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

The Politics of Successful Governance Reforms: Lessons of Design and Implementation. Mark Robinson,Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 2007

The Contribution of Government Communication Capacity to Achieving Good Governance Outcomes.Roundtable discussion, February 19, 2009.

Revenue Authorities and State Capacity in Anglophone Africa. CMI Working Paper, no. 2008:1, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen

Budgeting in Postconflict Countries. World Bank


Report of the Africa Progress Panel 2008     Background briefing – Governance. Africa Progress Panel

Governance & Transparency. Business Action for Africa

The Petroleum and Poverty Paradox: Assessing U.S. and International Community Efforts to Fight the Resource Curse. US Senate Foreign Relations Staff Report. October 16, 2008. TEXT PDF 3.2M

The Petroleum and Poverty Paradox. We must work smarter to reverse the resource curse. Senator Dick Lugar (US Senate Foreign Relations Committee).

Time for Accountability – An Assessment of G8 Action on Anti-Corruption Commitments

Governments and Companies Must Deliver on Global Transparency Initiative. P

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Transparency Can Alleviate PovertyGeorge Soros. Financial Times. “…Countries that are rich in natural resources are often poor because exploiting those resources takes precedence over good government. Competing oil and mining companies, backed by their governments, have often been willing to deal with anyone who could assure them of a concession. This has bred corrupt and repressive governments and armed conflict. In Africa, civil wars have devastated resource-rich countries such as Congo, Angola and Sudan. In the Middle East, democracy has failed to materialize. Lifting this resource curse could make a large contribution to alleviating poverty and misery in the world, and there is an international movement aimed at doing just that. The first step is transparency; the second is accountability…”

An African Al-Jazeera? Mass Media and the African Renaissance. Philip Fiske de Gouveia. Foreign Policy Centre, London. May 2005.

Africa Needs an Al-JazeeraPhilip Fiske de Gouveia. Foreign Policy. “…Such an entity [an independent, indigenous, multimedia, multilingual, pan-continental broadcasting network – owned and managed by Africans], broadcasting on television, radio, and the Internet, would push secretive governments toward greater transparency, foster economic and political ties between distant parts of the continent, and report honestly on events and trends affecting Africans…”

Civil Society Improves Governance and Poverty: Evidence from Six Country Studies. 2007. The International Budget Project and the Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, produced in-depth case studies of six established budget groups in Brazil, Croatia, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Uganda.

International Budget Project Newsletter. November-December 2007

– Increasing Synergies between Revenue Transparency and Budget Monitoring: The Experience of PWYP Coalitions in Africa by   Matteo Pellegrini

– Using the Radio to Mainstream Budget Transparency, Foro Jóven, Colombia by Rocío Campos

– Social Accountability and Budget Monitoring in Mozambique by Adriano Nuvunga

– The 2008 Ghana Budget, the Centre for Budget Advocacy (CBA) of the Integrated Social Development Centre (ISODEC)

– Budget Transparency with a Gender Focus, Civil Resource Development and Documentation Center (CIRDDOC) Nigeria by Show Ei Tun

Transparency and Accountability In Africa’s Extractive Industries: The Role of The Legislature. National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. 2007

Transparency and Accountability In Africa’s Extractive Industries: The Role of The Legislature. National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. 2007

Revenue Transparency: Russia vs. Africa. Bart Mongoven. July 26, 2007.

Governance and Transparency: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). PREM/COCPO workshop on Extractive Industry Issues, May 16 – 17, 2007

Launch of report on Nigeria APRM process. 23 September 2008.

Report on the African Peer Review process in Nigeria. September 2008

Launch of report on Benin APRM process. 04 August 2008.

Report on the APRM process in Benin

Bamako Workshop on the APRM. July 2008.

Addressing the African Peer Review Mechanism’s Programmes of Action. Faten Aggad, South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA), June 2008. As the set of plans to address the governance gaps identified in the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) process and highlighted in the Panel’s recommendations, the APRM’s Programmes of Action (PoAs) deserve careful consideration. Analysis reveals that most peer recommendations were ignored when the first six African countries came to write their PoA. This paper provides practical recommendations. These include: the need for greater prioritisation, using measurable indicators and improved integration of existing national plans into the PoA.

Corruption and Governance in the DRC during the Transition Period (2003-2006). Muzong Kodi, Institute for Security Studies, August 2008.


AfriMAP report on the justice sector in Senegal. November 2008.

AfriMAP submission to the APRM Secretariat on its review of procedures. December 2007. AfriMAP’s submission to the APRM Secretariat and Eminent Persons, with detailed recommendations on the contents of the APRM self-assessment questionnaire, as well as suggestions in relation to the process of implementing the APRM at national level, including access to information, participation, monitoring of the APRM results, and harmonisation with other processes. The submission — which can be downloaded below — is based on AfriMAP’s engagement with and observation of the APRM…

AfriMAP submission to the APRM Secretariat (pdf)

The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM): Africa’s Innovative Thinking on Governance. APRM Secretariat, May 2007. Summary of APRM progress to date prepared by the APRM Secretariat for the Eighth Gathering of the African Partnership Forum, Berlin, Germany 22 to 23 May 2007.

Measuring and Strengthening Local Governance Capacity: The Local Governance Barometer. Evan Bloom, Amy Sunseri and Aaron Leonard, PACT, 20 March 2007. Pact joined forces with its Impact Alliance partners, SNV and IDASA, to develop the Local Governance Barometer (LGB), with an aim of achieving the following objectives: (i) Ensure the participation of principal actors during the design of governance models as well as the collection, processing, and analysis of the information collected; (ii) Arrive at quantitative measures for good governance indicators to enable a comparative analysis between different situations, an understanding of the evolution of factors of governance, and evaluate the impact of interventions. This report describes results from pilot studies in six countries including South Africa, Botswana, Cameroon, Ecuador, Ghana, and Tanzania.

An Evaluation of Malian Civil Society’s Role in Governance. Abdou Togola and Dan Gerber, African Development Bank and RTI International, March 2007. For the last two decades, most countries of West Africa have been on a path of increased government decentralization as a strategy for improved governance. Mali is one of those countries that have seen the end of dictatorial rule and the emergence of more pluralistic government. This has coincided with the emergence of a stronger civil society. The development of civil society in Mali and elsewhere is both a by-product of and a catalyst for the democratic movement. French version

Anti-Corruption Challenges in Post-Election Democratic Republic of Congo. Muzong W. Kodi, Chatham House, January 2007. The paper assesses a number of anti-corruption initiatives undertaken by the government of DRC during the transition period as a result of pressure from the international community. Only lipservice was paid to these schemes by the government and the development partners of the Congo. The new government will be faced with the difficult responsibility of deciding on priorities in an environment where all sectors require urgent attention. The paper argues that the governance reforms that the DRC has to implement will not succeed if graft is not tackled in parallel and as an integral part of these reform programmes.

Development, Governance and the Media: The Role of the Media in Building African Society. POLIS, 2007. Report based on a conference held in March 2007. It reflects upon the implications of the 2006 DFID White Paper on ‘Making Governance Work for the Poor’; the African Media Development Initiative (AMDI) survey, the most extensive, independent mapping of African media to date, setting out a range of ideas for actions that can impact on the future of African media; and the UNECA-led Strengthening Africa’s Media (STREAM) consultation process.

Relevance of African Traditional Institutions of Governance. UNECA, 2007

7th Africa Governance Forum – “Building the Capable State in Africa”. UNDP. 24-26 October 2007. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Includes several country reports.

Background papers:

AGF VII: The Role of Non-State Actors. Jenerali Ulimwengu, UNDP. The role of civil society in building a capable state.

AGF VII: The Role of the State and Africa’s Development Challenges. John-Mary Kauzya, UNDP. The challenge of governance and building the capable state.

AGF VII: Enhancing Institutional and Human Capacity for Improved Public Sector Performance. Oliver S. Saasa, UNDP.

AGF VII: Role of Women in Building the Capable State in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. Rudo Chitiga, UNDP.

Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption: New Frontiers in Public-Private Partnerships. Conference event organized by the World Bank Institute, OECD, and the Belgian government. March 2007.

Programme – Links to presentations

G8 backs oil and mining transparency initiative but actions speak louder than words. Publish What You Pay International. 8 Jul 2005

“…the task of improving governance and tackling corruption does not fall to poor countries alone. The G8 countries should be passing domestic laws and regulations that promote resource revenue transparency by their own companies. International financial institutions should be requiring revenue transparency from all their resource-dependent borrowers. Resource-rich developing countries should also be compelled to follow best practices on transparency as illustrated in the IMF’s recently published Guide on Resource Revenue Transparency.” An index that measures resource revenue transparency, published earlier in 2005 by Save the Children UK, shows that G8 governments have a lot more work to do at home, as well as supporting the EITI. The “Measuring Transparency” survey showed that most developed countries that support EITI do not require their own companies to be transparent about payments to developing countries.


Stolen Funds Deposited in Swiss Banks Returned to Nigeria. World Bank. With World Bank Assistance, Stolen Funds Deposited in Swiss Banks are Returned to Nigeria. September 27, 2005

Report of the Ad hoc Expert Group Meeting on “Public Financial Management and Accountability Focusing on Best Practices in the Context of Budget Transparency. Economic Commission for Africa. September 2005

Business Action for Africa Submission to the Africa All-Party Parliamentary Group (UK) on Corruption and Money Laundering.

UN Treaty To Fight Global Corruption Goes Into ForceSep 16, 2005

Oil windfalls bigger than G8 aidThe Guardian (UK). September 15, 2005. Windfalls from the rising global price of oil and other commodities will be worth more to poor countries in Africa than the doubling of aid promised by the G8 industrial nations, one of Britain’s leading development think-tanks said yesterday.

Back to Basics—10 Myths About Governance and Corruption. Daniel Kaufmann (World Bank). Finance & Development, September 2005

Transparenting Transparency: Initial Empirics and Policy Applications. A. Bellver and D. Kaufmann (2005). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

Corruption Takes Two, Wolfowitz Tells Business Leaders. Text of remarks by World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz at the Corporate Council on Africa’s US-Africa Business Summit dinner, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. June 23, 2005.

“…And so let’s, especially those of us from so-called the rich countries, developed countries, let’s hold a mirror up to ourselves and remember every corrupt transaction has two parties. (Applause.) If I can coin a term there is a corruptee and there is a corruptor. (Laughter, applause.) And if the African people and their leaders are stepping up to the challenge of dealing with the corruptees, we, if I can speak as a citizen of a developed country – those of us in the developed world, in fact anywhere in the world, have responsibility to address corruptors as well. And to help African countries, as the Nigerian as seeking to do now, to recover the some of the stolen wealth that is sitting in bank accounts where it doesn’t belong. (Applause.) …”

Africa isn’t poor because of corruptionThe Guardian (UK). July 18, 2005. In the month leading up to the G8, Nigeria revealed that its leaders had stolen $390bn (£222bn) over the last 40 years. It was a shocking admission and provided fuel for those critics who say the African problem is irredeemable largely due to corruption.

G8 backs oil and mining transparency initiative but actions speak louder than words. Publish What You Pay Coalition.

Transparency International – Statements on the G-8, Aid, and Corruption. The G-8 must act decisively: Africa’s future hangs in the balance.

Plug the leaks – or waste the aid. Sony Kapoor and John Christiansen. The Guardian. July 11, 2005. The recent G8 announcements fall far short of what was needed but they also ignored the equally important issue of capital flight.

Global Forum Urges Ratification of Anti-corruption Convention. Final declaration also asks for denial of safe haven to corrupt officials. [Fourth Global Forum on Fighting Corruption (GF IV), Brasilia, Brazil]. June 10, 2005

Measuring Transparency in the Extractive Industries. Publish What You Pay Coalition.

Beyond the Rhetoric – Measuring revenue transparency in the oil and gas industries. Save the Children UK. April 2005


Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators for 1996-2004 – World Bank Institute

World Bank Institute – Presentations on Governance & Corruption at Various Events & Conferences — 1999-2005


Follow the Money: A Guide to Monitoring Budgets and Oil and Gas Revenues. Open Society Institute. 2005.

Can civil society add value to budget decision-making? A description of the expanding contribution of civil society organizations to public budgets in developing countries. Warren Krafchik. International Budget Project

Opening Budgets to Public Understanding and Debate: Results from 36 Countries. International Budget Project

Other International Budget Project publications

A Budget Guide for Civil Society Organisations Working in Education. Affiliated Network for Social Accountability (ANSA-Africa). February 2009. Download document…


Tunnel Vision on Corruption. Moisés Naím. Washington Post. February 20, 2005

Debunking Myths on Worldwide Governance and Corruption. Daniel Kaufmann, Director, World Bank Institute’s Global Programs. February 2005

Extracting Transparency. Winter/Spring 2004. David L. Goldwyn. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs

Revenue Transparency in the Extractive Industries: The role of International Financial Institutions. Heike Mainhardt, Bank Information Center, November 2004

West Africa Gas Pipeline (WAGP), Nigeria/Benin/Togo/Ghana. Various Documents. Bank Information Center.


In Nigeria, Where Money Talks, Reform Is the Word. Craig Timberg. The Washington Post. May 01, 2005

Second Nigerian minister sacked. Nigeria’s president sacks his housing minister, the second top official to go in his anti-corruption drive. BBC News. 4 April 2005

Balogun Faces N13bn 70-Count Charge • Osomo Sacked, Wabara QuitsThisDay (Nigeria). 5 April 2005

Nigeria’s graft fighter – Nigerian’s war against corruption. BBC News. 28 March 2005. Nuhu Ribadu faces a mammoth task Nigeria has acquired a terrible worldwide reputation for corruption and financial crimes, including 419 scams. The BBC’s Yusuf Mohammed profiles the man tasked with fighting the fraudsters.

Obasanjo’s thankless task. BBC News. 7 October 2004

Anti-corruption lessons for Nigerians. 22 June, 2004. Sola Odunfa. BBC, Lagos. An anti-corruption curriculum is set to be introduced across all public schools and universities in Nigeria.

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The Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project

Chad & World Bank: PWYP urges all stakeholders to resume talks to end current stalemate over oil revenue management. The Publish What You Pay (PWYP) coalition. 3 Feb 2006

Contracting out of Human Rights: The Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project. Amnesty International, September 2005.

Chad-Cameroon: pumping poverty. Friends of the Earth. April 2005

Oil Revenues Flow to Chad (Feature Story). World Bank. April 01, 2005

Chad’s Oil: Miracle or Mirage? Following the Money in Africa’s Newest Petro-State. Bank Information Center. February 2005.

World Bank response: An Open Letter to Catholic Relief Services and Bank Information Center in Response to the Report “Chad’s Oil: Miracle or Mirage for the Poor?”, March 1, 2005

CSOs Examine Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project and Chad Budget Process. International Budget Project

Other Bank Information Center Documents on the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project

Chad-Cameroon pipeline: Corruption and double standards. 15 November 2004. Bretton Woods Project.

Cameroon Activists accuse World Bank of double standards over pipeline project. Michael Peel, Financial Times. November 6, 2004

The World Bank’s Great Gamble in Central Africa. Leif Brottem. Foreign Policy In Focus Commentary. July 2, 2004. Through its financial backing of oil fields in Chad, the World Bank is putting to the test a new approach to an old African problem: the marriage of oil, embezzlement, and political corruption.

Chad-Cameroon: A Model Pipeline? Winter/Spring 2004. Aude Delescluse. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs

Oil Wealth Trickles Into Chad, but Little Trickles Down. March 13, 2004. Emily Wax. The Washington Post.

Africa’s Dangerous Treasure. 10 March 2004. Korinna Horta and Delphine Djiraibe. The Washington Post. Oil production in African countries has often brought, instead of prosperity, greater poverty, destruction of the environment and violent conflict.

Chad: oil revenues ring-fenced as exports start. 15 July 2003. Landlocked Chad, one of the poorest countries in Africa, this week becomes an oil exporter as crude starts flowing down a 1,070 km pipeline to a floating export terminal off the coast of Cameroon.


U.S. Energy Policy Must Look to West Africa. Charles W. Corey. Washington File. US State Department. 21 July 2004. Gulf of Guinea increasingly important to U.S., expert says

Hearing: Combating Multilateral Development Bank Corruption: U.S. Treasury Role and Internal Efforts. July 21, 2004. US Senate Foreign Relations Committee

Comments on the Current Lesotho Bribery Prosecutions. Guido Penzhorn SC (Durban, South Africa), Lead counsel on behalf of the Lesotho government in the present bribery prosecutions relating to the Highlands Water Project. Presentation Before The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 21 July 2004

140 NGOs call on IFC for clear rights, rules and responsibilities in policy reviews. Bank Information Center. July 15, 2004

Global Business leaders to back UN action on corruption. 23 June 2004. Financial Times

United States Economic Assistance Conditionality Act of 2004 (H.R. 4364). Bill introduced in theInternational Relations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, 13 May 2004. The bill seeks to amend the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require the governments of low income oil-producing countries to meet certain requirements relating to their oil revenues in order to be eligible to receive economic and development assistance.

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