Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Circulation, Diaspora Africans, and Capacity Building in Africa


More than Just Sending Money Home: Engaging the Diaspora as a Priority for Africa’s Development. In Foresight Africa: Top Priorities for the Continent in 2013. Anne W. Kamau and Mwangi S. Kimenyi. Africa Growth Initiative, Brookings Institution. January 2013.

Af­rica’s large diaspora has mainly been seen as an asset to African countries only in terms of remittances. However, the African diaspora population is untapped human capital, underutilized as a source of invest­ment, support and human capital, and a resource for advocacy and political pressure.Anne Kamau and Mwangi S. Kimenyi offer ways for African policymakers to better engage diaspora members in the year ahead. African governments should take the time and effort to know what their diaspora looks like so that they can target it more effectively. African banks should look to diaspora members as potential clients. Also, by building effective and targeted lobbying and advocacy groups, African governments can empower their diaspora in their host countries to influence foreign policies that impact Africa.

Sending money back home beats foreign aid. Good Governance Africa. Diaspora-driven development is the way to go, says Adams Bodomo. The African diaspora is a major source of foreign income—so large that it now outstrips foreign aid sent by Western donors. Nearly 140m Africans live abroad. The money they send back home, remittances, is worth far more—in value and usefulness— than the development donations sent by Western financial institutions. The exact amount of these remittances is unknown because not all of it is sent through official banking channels. But the official volume to the continent has gradually increased over the years, from $11 billion in 2000 to $60 billion in 2012, according to the World Bank. As a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), remittances in Africa range from next-to-nothing to almost 5%.

African Diaspora Program (ADP) – World Bank

Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) – Mobilizing Diaspora Resources

Event: Who needs the African Diaspora? Is the Diaspora Politically relevant? Social Media Week, Lagos (Nigeria)

Event: 2013 Global Diaspora Forum

Diaspora Innovators Redefine Brain Drain. Geneive Brown Metzger.  International Diaspora Engagement Alliance. June 26, 2012. Have diaspora innovators actually helped to mitigate many of the negative effects of “brain drain”? Perhaps it is time we exchanged the notion of “brain drain” for the proposition of “brain gain” in light of current trends in diaspora engagement. Immigrants today are reconnecting with their countries of origin more easily and more frequently than they could in the past. This new paradigm warrants a fresh look at the true impact of migration on the social and economic development of emerging and developing nations. Could it be that diaspora movements have helped to mitigate many of the negative effects of “brain drain” experienced by individual countries and that the result is a net gain, rather than a net loss, to countries of origin?

The African Diaspora Policy Centre (The Netherlands)The African Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC) enables African Diaspora in Europe to connect more closely with the continent as a collective force. The thematic areas are PeacebuildingBetter GovernanceMigration & Development and Brain Gain.

Clinton: Diaspora Populations Can Turn ‘Brain Drain’ into ‘Brain Gain’. Anthony Advincula. August 9, 2012.

Diaspora Media: Africa’s Missing Link With Its Diaspora. Ola Ogunyemi. February 4, 2013.

Africa and Africans in the Diaspora. Mary A. Akangbe. February 5, 2013.

Can Africa Diaspora Turn Africa Brain Drain into Brain Gain? Paul Omoruyi. Diaspora Scope. November 21, 2012.

NIDAN – Turning Brain Drain Into Brain Jideofor Adibe. 6 September 2012. Nigeria Diaspora Alumni Network (NiDAN)

Not a Drain Drain, But a Brain Gain – Diaspora Business. August 10, 2012.

Brain drain to brain gain: Africa’s returning Diaspora.  Puseletso Nkopane. Consultancy Africa Intelligence. June 4, 2012.

Brain Drain to Brain gain? James MacKinnon. Canadian International Development Platform. May 15, 2012.

Africa to Turn ‘Brain Drain into Brain Gain’. Henry Owuor. The Nation.(Kenya). February 13,  2012.

Africa: Brain Drains in Context. AfricaFocus Bulletin. Feb 10, 2012

Africa Turn ‘Brain Drain Into Brain Gain’. February 15, 2012

Diaspora Entrepreneurs: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain. Jonathan Ortmans

Reversing the Brain Drain in Africa. The African Diaspora Policy Centre.

Engaging the Diaspora to Deal with Brain Drain. The World Bank.

Reversing Brain Drain In South Africa And A Turn Towards Brain Gain –  A Draft Concept Paper. University of Texas.

Reversing Africa’s Brain Drain: the AfricaRecruit Initiative and the Challenge to Governments, the Diaspora and the Private Sector. Mohan Kaul.

South African Diaspora: Brain Drain or Gain? Rhynie Greef. Daily News. November 29, 2011.

From ‘Brain Drain’ to ‘Brain Gain’ – The Diaspora Option. Mobilizing African Diaspora Professional Networks in Europe for Health Sector Human Resource Needs in Sub-Saharan Africa. University of Warwick. 2011.

The New African Diaspora: Engaging the Question of Brain Drain – Brain Gain. Akanmu Adebayo. 2011.

The African “Brain Drain” to the North: Pitfalls and Possibilities. Paul Zeleza. African Issues.

Brain Gain: Skilled Diaspora Return to Africa. Phephelaphi Dube. September 2, 2010.

Brain Drain to Brain Gain: What are the Implications for Higher Education in Africa? Christopher B. Mugimu. Comparative & International Higher Education 2 (2010).

How Nigeria can turn its brain drain to brain gain – Phillip Emeagwali. Mideno Bayagbon. May 5, 2010

Understanding the Brain-Drain in the African Diaspora: Focusing on Nigeria. Jessica Adefusika. Digital Commons@URI. May 2010.

Brain Drain-Brain Gain: Leveraging the Nigerian Diaspora for the Revitalization of Nigerian Higher Education. Akanmu Adebayo.  April 14, 2010.

Four Ways Brain Drain out of Africa is a Good Thing. Laura Freschi. February 17, 2010

Letters: So-called brain drain proving a net gain for developing countriesDebo Akande. People who left for Europe and America are now helping their home countries to progress – it’s time to involve them in development policy and planning

Mobilising the Diaspora: UNESCO and HP create a virtual “brain gain” for African and Arab universities. Can brain drain become brain gain? 29 March 2010

Turning brain drain into “brain gain”. UNESCO and HP join forces to help universities in Africa and the Middle East.

A Pilot Project to Reverse Brain Drain to Brain Gain in Africa. Martin Antony Walker.

Africa – Q&A – The World Bank and the African Diaspora.  Oct 9, 2008

African Migration and the Brain Drain.  David Shinn.  June 20, 2008

Brain Drain, Waste or Gain? What we know about the Kenyan Case. Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere. March 20, 2007

Africa’s Options: Return, Retention or Diaspora? SciDev.Net. Wisdom J. Tetley. May 1, 2003.

Scientific Diasporas: A New Approach to the Brain Drain. Jean-Baptiste Meyer and Mercy Brown. 1999.

Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Ainalem Tebeje.Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD). Feb 2005.

A diaspora and its good deeds. Clyde Sanger. February 2005

Semantics Aside: the Role of the African Diaspora in Africa’s Capacity Building EffortsAssociation for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD) & International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

“Semantics Aside” Power Point Presentation by Ainalem Tebeje

Mobilizing Ethiopians Living Abroad for the Development of Ethiopia. Ainalem Tebeje and Clyde Sanger. September 2004.

Stopping The Brain Drain From Africa: Their Loss, Our Gain.   Ainalem Tebeje and Clyde Sanger.

Reversing the Brain Drain, Harnessing the Diaspora. Special Feature. eAfrica – The Electronic Journal of Governance and Innovation. September 2003. South African Institute of International Affairs

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and The Foundation for Democracy in Africa (FDA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding, to reverse the effect of the “Brain Drain” on African Countries. Press Release, Washington DC – April 04, 2005.

Africa’s “Brain Gain”: Whose Shibboleth?  Atieno Odhiambo. December 2004

Brain Drain in Africa: Facts & Figures

How Africa is Courting its Exiles. E. Blunt. BBC News, 17 October 2004.

Former UNESCO Boss Cites Reasons for Africa’s Brain Drain. Panapress, 9 October 2004.

Brain Drain in Africa – African Medical and Research Foundation

Africa’s Health-care Brain Drain. New York Times, 13 August 2004

A Foot in Each Country. Adrian Cho. Science Magazine. 28 May 2004. Many foreign-born scientists who succeed in the United States are helping those they left behind–without leaving their new home

How networking can help mitigate the brain drain. David Dickson. 24 November 2003. SciDev.Net

Nigerians in Diaspora Critical to FDI. Bright Ewulu. Daily Trust. 11 May 2004

Harnessing Remittances for Economic Development: A Case for Remittance Policy in Ghana. Y. Sophism. 12 Sept 2003.

From Brain Drain To Brain Circulation: Can Ghana Harness Its Human Capital Abroad For Development? Yaw Sophism. 15 August 2003

Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora (CIAD) – 7-9 Oct 2004 – Speeches, Reports, Etc.    Final Report

International Migration and Development in Africa and Related ECA and Partnership Activities. UN Economic Commission for Africa. 30 September 2004

Mobilizing Africa’s Intellectual Diaspora. Damtew TeferraInternational Higher Education, Spring 2004

Brain Circulation: Unparalleled Opportunities, Underlying Challenges, and Outmoded Presumptions. Damtew Teferra. October 2004. 

Brain Drain and Mobility – Bibliography of Recent Publications, International Network for Higher Education in Africa.

Revisiting the Doctrine of Human Capital Mobility in the information Age. Damtew Teferra. In Sibry Tapsoba et al. (Eds.), Brain Drain and Capacity Building in AfricaInternational Development Research Center (IDRC),International Organization for Migration (IOM ), and Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).

Unleashing the Forces of the Diaspora: Capitalizing on Brain Drain in the Era of Information and Communication Technologies. Damtew Teferra. In Diasporas Scientifiques–Scientific Diasporas, Part II, Collection Expertise Collégiale. 2003. IRD Editions: Paris.

Scientific Communication in African Universities: External Assistance and National Needs. Damtew Teferra. 2003. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook. Damtew Teferra & P. G. Altbach (Eds.). 2003. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Knowledge Dissemination in Africa: The Role of Scholarly Journals. Philip G. Altbach & Damtew Teferra (Eds.). Bellagio Studies in Publishing, 8. Boston College, MA: Bellagio Publishing Network. 1998

How do we reverse the brain drain? Philip Emeagwali. October 24, 2003. Includes readers’ comments & responses.

Africa’s options: return, retention or diaspora? Wisdom J Tettey. May 2003. An analysis of the brain drain in Africa, looking at the ideas that have guided efforts to address the problem, suggests ways of harnessing the continent’s intellectual resources to its socio-economic and political development.

Africa’s brain drain: exploring possibilities for its positive utilization through networked communitiesWisdom J Tettey. 2002. Mots Pluriels 20

An Action Plan to Prevent Brain Drain: Building Equitable Health Systems in Africa. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR). 2004

The Brain Drain in Africa – An Emerging Challenge to Health Professionals’ Education. D. Dovlo. Journal of Higher Education in Africa. 2004

“Human Resources for Health: Overcoming the Crisis”. Global Health Trust’s Joint Learning Initiative. 2004

Online resources on brain drain of health professionals from Africa

Global Workshop on Leveraging Diasporas of the Highly Skilled – Buenos Aires, Argentina – April 26-27, 2005


Leveraging National Science & Technology and Business Talent AbroadYevgeny Kuznetsov. World Bank. April 26, 2005

From Brain Drain to Gain: Operational Implications of International Mobility of Human Capital. Yevgeny Kuznetsov.  World Bank. 2005

Work Globally, Develop Locally: Diaspora Networks as Springboards of Knowledge-Based Development.Yevgeny Kuznetsov. World Bank. Examines ways to increase the chances that the migration of high-skill workers benefits sending countries.



INDIA’S TRANSFORMATION TO KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY – EVOLVING ROLE OF THE INDIAN DIASPORA. Abhishek Pandey, Alok Aggarwal, Richard Devane and Yevgeny Kuznetsov, Everserves




Reversing Ethiopia’s Brain Drain: A National Imperative: Part 1. Yosef Yacob – 2005  

Ethiopia wants skilled Diaspora to return. afrol News, 11 November 2004

Reversing the Brain Drain In Ethiopia. David H. Shinn. November 23, 2002.

Brain drain makes the quality of higher education to deteriorate: Better address than to be proud of the brain drain, The Reporter (Ethiopia)

The Diaspora as National Capacity Development Strategy (Ethiopia). March 2003 

Diaspora Skills, Remittance Said Huge Potential for Ethiopian Development. 31 March 2004

UN Volunteers in Ethiopia

Mobilizing Ethiopians Living Abroad for the Development of Ethiopia

IOM says the Diaspora Keen to Contribute to Country’s Development (Ethiopia). August 9 2004.

Looking Beyond Remittances. B. Yosef. Addis Fortune Magazine. December 19, 2004. 

Leveraging Diaspora Skills and Remittances for Development (Ethiopia). 02 April 2004

Reversing Brain Drain: A Personal Testimony. Hailemeskel Bisrat. Addis Tribune. 28 Jan 2005.

Brain Drain: Putting Africa between a Rock and a Hard Place. Mohamed A. El-Khawas. Mediterranean Quarterly. Fall 2004

Academics streaming out of Africa. BBC News. 25 March 04

Why is Africa losing its best brains? BBC News. 19 March 2004. Thousands of Africa’s professionals and students are leaving the continent for better prospects in Europe, USA or India. Includes readers’ comments.

Harnessing the Twin Resources Of Africa: People and Natural Resources for Sustainable Development. United Nations University. 10 June 2004. Summary of the UNU/INRA panel.

France pledges support for ‘scientific diasporas’. Sally Goodman. 21 November 2003. SciDev.Net

South Africa shows the value of the diaspora option. Mercy Brown. 22 May 2003. SciDev.Net

Policy implications of the brain drain’s changing face. Jean-Baptiste Meyer. May 2003.

Impact of skilled migration on receiving countries. Mark C Regets. May 2003.

Reversing Africa’s ‘Brain Drain’: New Initiatives Tap Skills of African Expatriates. G. Mutume. Africa Recovery, July 2003.

The need for policies that meet the needs of all. B. Lindsay Lowell. May 2003.

Networking lessons from Taiwan and South Korea. Hah-Zoong Song. May 2003. How networking – both personal and institutional – plays a crucial role in managing brain circulation.

Halting Africa’s health brain drain. BBC News World Edition19 May 2003

Africa Brain Drain: 70,000 Scholars Leave Yearly. D. Odumasi-Ashanti. Ghanaian Chronicle, 13 March 2003

The turning tide of Africa’s brain drain. BBC News. 14 March 03

Brain Drain to Brain Gain – Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. UNESCO

Diasporas, Brain Drain and Return. 2002. Assouman Yao Honoré

Unifem’s Digital Diaspora Initiative: Fostering E-Quality In Africa. Laketch Dirasse. World Bank Gender and Digital Divide Seminar Series. May 21, 2002

Eritrean brain drain row. BBC News. 13 Feb 2001 African teachers rescue London schools. BBC News. 02 Feb 2001UK ‘behind SA brain drain’. BBC News. 16 Feb 2001 

Capacity Development Resource Center (CDRC) Website – World Bank

World Bank Capacity Day (June 8, 2005): Capacity Matters: Operational Implications  [Includes: “Capacity Development Strategies: Lessons from Africa” (Session Two)]

Capacity Building in Africa: an OED Evaluation of World Bank Support. April 2005

Joint Workshop on Capacity Building:”Effective States and Engaged Societies. Opening Remarks. Workshop co-sponsored by the African Development Bank (AfDB), the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa ( UNECA) and the World Bank. February 24 – 25, 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Building State Capacity in Africa. Sahr Kpundeh and Brian Levy, editors. World Bank. September 2004

Towards a More Strategic Approach to Capacity Building in Africa. World Bank. Africa Regional Capacity Building Strategy Paper

The World Bank and Civil Society Development: Exploring Two Courses of Action for Capacity Building.Gabriel Siri. World Bank. 2002

Capacity Building: A New Way of Doing Business for Development Assistance Organizations. Policy Brief No. 6: Institute On Governance, Ottawa, Canada. 2000

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Migration for Development in Africa (MIDA)

World Migration Report 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration

Migration and Development – IOM

Partnership for Brain Gain and Capacity Building in Africa. International Organization for Migration.

Africa Recruit

Reversing Africa’s Brain Drain: Commonwealth Business Council – Africa Recruit. Press Release. 19 February 2003

Reversing Africa’s brain drain. Michael Johnson, Commonwealth Business Council

Seminar Offers Remedies For Africa’s ‘Brain Drain – Sept 2004.

Akina Mama wa Afrika (AMwA)

Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD)

Association of Nigerians Abroad – Net bid to bring Ethiopians home. BBC News

Ghana Cybergroup

Medact – Health Brain Drain

Nigerians in Diaspora (NIDO) – Americas 

Nigerians in Diaspora (NIDO)– Netherlands

Southern African Migration Project. Migration Resources: Brain Drain Resources

South African Network of Citizens Abroad (SANSA)

AFFORD – The African Foundation for Development (UK) – Diaspora, Migration and Development

Mobilising Africa’s diaspora for development

Globalisation and Development: A Diaspora Dimension (AFFORD’s response to DFID’s 1997 White Paper on international development)

Harnessing Mobility and Identity for Africa’s Transformation

Aid agencies interventions in Africa – Helping to create brain gain? * 

Can NEPAD harness the African diaspora’s developmental efforts? * 

Contributions by African organisations in the UK to Africa’s development *

Target Africa 2015 (PDF) – development awareness, networking & lifelong learning among African organizations in London, African Diaspora and Development Day (ad3)


TOKTEN Programme – Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals. UNESCO

The Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22 – 24 February 2000. Background Documents. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

Report – Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa.

From Brain Drain to Brain Gain: Africa’s Agenda for Training, Retaining and Using its Human Resources Effectively. Synthesis of papers presented at the Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-24 February 2000.

Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-24 February 2000.

Report of the Conference

Brain Drain and Capacity Building in AfricaTapsoba, S. J. M., Kassoum, S. Houenou, P. V., One, B., Sethi, M., and Ngu, J. (Eds.).  (2000). Joint publication of the Economic Commission for Africa, the International Development Research Centre, and the International Organization for Migration.

Using the Intellectual Diaspora to Reverse the Brain Drain: Some Useful Examples. Mercy Brown, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa: The Gambian Experience

UN Tackles African Brain Drain. V. Gidley-Kitchin. BBC News. 22 February 2000

Africa’s Brain Drain Slows Development. David Johnson. March 02, 2000

Development – Africa: Best and Brightest Head West. T. Deen. IPS, 10 February, 1999

Investing in Return: Rates of Return of African Ph.D.s Trained in North America. Mark Pires, Ronald Kassimir & Mesky Brhane. 1999. Social Science Research Council

The International Symposium on Global Mobilization of Intellectual Resources for the Development and Stability of Africa. 25-26 February 1998. Co-Chairs’ Summary. The United Nations University Africa Network

Diaspora Interest in Homeland Investment. Kate Gillespie et al. Journal of International Business Studies, 1999

Palestinian Interest in Homeland Investment.  Kate Gillespie, Edward Sayre, and Liesl Riddle. The Middle East Journal, Spring 2001

Migration can aid development. Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah. Financial Times. 13 April 2005

Outward bound: Do developing countries gain or lose when their brightest talents go abroad?. The Economist.September 26, 2002

The International Mobility of Talent and its Impact on Global Development: An OverviewAndrés Solimano.January 12, 2005. UN-ECLAC

Skilled Migration: The Perspective of Developing Countries. Frederic Docquier & Hillel Rapoport. World Bank. 2004.

Migration and Development: The Role of the World Bank. United Nations. 22 October 2004

International Migration in the Arab Region and Suggestions for Key Actions. League of Arab States. United Nations. October 2004

Diaspora helping India to retain edge in outsourcing. 30 September 2004.

Digital diasporas and international development: Afghan-Americans and the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff. Public Administration and Development. 2004

Diasporas, Development and ICTs (includes list of Diaspora Networks)

Armenia and Its Diaspora: Is There Scope for a Stronger Economic Link? Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan & David A. Grigorian. Armenian Forum 3, 2003. The Gomidas Institute

The value of brain export. Up to 10% brain drain could be good for poorer countries. Dorrit van Dalen. 25 October 2003

International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain: A World Bank Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. June 2003.

Report of the expert meeting on migration, brain drain and development. Nuffic, 11 December, 2003.

Rethinking the Brain Drain. Oded Stark. ZEF-Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 71, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Bonn, June 2003.

Brain Circulation: How High Skill Immigration Makes Everyone Better OffA. Saxenian. The Brookings Review.2002

International Mobility of the Highly Skilled. Organization for Economic Cooperation Development, 2002

International Migration: An Emerging Opportunity for the Socio-economic Development. UNESCAP

Policy Research on Migration and Development: A Survey

The Brain Drain: Old Myths, New Realities. M. Cervantes and D. Guellec. OECD Observer, May 2002

The Brain Drain: Curse or Boom? Simon Commander et al. May 2002

Transnational Networks and Skilled Labour Migration. Steven Vertovec. February 2002

When the Best Brains Go Abroad: Emerging markets need not ignore the resources and contributions of their expatriates. Janamitra Devan & Tewari Parth. McKinsey Quarterly. September 2001

The Bangalore Boom: From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation? Anna Lee Saxenian. In Kennistan, Kenneth & Deepak Kumar eds., Bridging the Digital Divide: Lessons from India (Bangalore: National Institute of Advanced Study, 2000).

Diasporas & Technology Transfer. Devesh Kapur. Journal of Human Development2001

Role of the Diasporas in Transition Economies: Lessons From Armenia. Lev M. Freinkman

Migration as a source of growth: The perspective of a developing countryFabien Postel-Vinay & Manon Domingues Dos Santos. Journal of Population Economics2003.

Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidenceMichel Beine, Frederic Docquier & Hillel Rapoport.Journal of Development Economics2001.

Ethnic Chinese Networks In International TradeJames E. Rauch & Vitor Trindade. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 2002.

How Big is the Brain Drain?William Carrington & Enrica Detragiache. IMF Working Papers1998. International Monetary Fund.

A brain gain with a brain drainOded Stark, Christian Helmenstein & Alexia Prskawetz,  Economics Letters,1997.

An Economic Model of the Brain DrainViem Kwok & Hayne Leland, American Economic Review, 1982.

Skilled Labour Migration (The ‘Brain Drain’) From Developing Countries: Analysis of Impact and Policy Issues.International Labour Organization. 2002  

List of Project Reports

Synthesis report: “Migration of Highly Skilled Persons from Developing Countries: Impact and Policy Responses

Skilled labor migration from developing countries: Study on South and Southern Africa. Haroon Bhorat, Jean-Baptiste Meyer and Cecil Mlatsheni

Some Developmental Effects of the International Migration of Highly Skilled Persons. B. Lindsay Lowell, ILO Geneva, 2002

Policy Responses to the International Mobility of Skilled Labour. B. Lindsay Lowell, ILO Geneva, 2002

Migration of Highly Skilled Persons from Developing Countries: Impact and Policy Responses. Synthesis Report, ILO Geneva, 2002


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