More than Just Sending Money Home: Engaging the Diaspora as a Priority for Africa’s Development. In Foresight Africa: Top Priorities for the Continent in 2013. Anne W. Kamau and Mwangi S. Kimenyi. Africa Growth Initiative, Brookings Institution. January 2013.
Africa’s large diaspora has mainly been seen as an asset to African countries only in terms of remittances. However, the African diaspora population is untapped human capital, underutilized as a source of investment, support and human capital, and a resource for advocacy and political pressure.Anne Kamau and Mwangi S. Kimenyi offer ways for African policymakers to better engage diaspora members in the year ahead. African governments should take the time and effort to know what their diaspora looks like so that they can target it more effectively. African banks should look to diaspora members as potential clients. Also, by building effective and targeted lobbying and advocacy groups, African governments can empower their diaspora in their host countries to influence foreign policies that impact Africa.
Sending money back home beats foreign aid. Good Governance Africa. Diaspora-driven development is the way to go, says Adams Bodomo. The African diaspora is a major source of foreign income—so large that it now outstrips foreign aid sent by Western donors. Nearly 140m Africans live abroad. The money they send back home, remittances, is worth far more—in value and usefulness— than the development donations sent by Western financial institutions. The exact amount of these remittances is unknown because not all of it is sent through official banking channels. But the official volume to the continent has gradually increased over the years, from $11 billion in 2000 to $60 billion in 2012, according to the World Bank. As a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), remittances in Africa range from next-to-nothing to almost 5%.
African Diaspora Program (ADP) – World Bank
Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) – Mobilizing Diaspora Resources
Event: Who needs the African Diaspora? Is the Diaspora Politically relevant? Social Media Week, Lagos (Nigeria)
Event: 2013 Global Diaspora Forum
Diaspora Innovators Redefine Brain Drain. Geneive Brown Metzger. International Diaspora Engagement Alliance. June 26, 2012. Have diaspora innovators actually helped to mitigate many of the negative effects of “brain drain”? Perhaps it is time we exchanged the notion of “brain drain” for the proposition of “brain gain” in light of current trends in diaspora engagement. Immigrants today are reconnecting with their countries of origin more easily and more frequently than they could in the past. This new paradigm warrants a fresh look at the true impact of migration on the social and economic development of emerging and developing nations. Could it be that diaspora movements have helped to mitigate many of the negative effects of “brain drain” experienced by individual countries and that the result is a net gain, rather than a net loss, to countries of origin?
The African Diaspora Policy Centre (The Netherlands). The African Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC) enables African Diaspora in Europe to connect more closely with the continent as a collective force. The thematic areas are Peacebuilding, Better Governance, Migration & Development and Brain Gain.
Clinton: Diaspora Populations Can Turn ‘Brain Drain’ into ‘Brain Gain’. Anthony Advincula. Alternet.org. August 9, 2012.
Diaspora Media: Africa’s Missing Link With Its Diaspora. AllAfrica.com. Ola Ogunyemi. February 4, 2013.
Africa and Africans in the Diaspora. Mary A. Akangbe. February 5, 2013.
Can Africa Diaspora Turn Africa Brain Drain into Brain Gain? Paul Omoruyi. Diaspora Scope. November 21, 2012.
NIDAN – Turning Brain Drain Into Brain Gain. AllAfrica.com. Jideofor Adibe. 6 September 2012. Nigeria Diaspora Alumni Network (NiDAN)
Not a Drain Drain, But a Brain Gain – Diaspora Business. Rave.ac.uk. August 10, 2012.
Brain drain to brain gain: Africa’s returning Diaspora. Puseletso Nkopane. Consultancy Africa Intelligence. June 4, 2012.
Brain Drain to Brain gain? James MacKinnon. Canadian International Development Platform. May 15, 2012.
Africa to Turn ‘Brain Drain into Brain Gain’. Henry Owuor. The Nation.(Kenya). February 13, 2012.
Africa: Brain Drains in Context. AfricaFocus Bulletin. Feb 10, 2012
Africa Turn ‘Brain Drain Into Brain Gain’. Africanglobe.net. February 15, 2012
Diaspora Entrepreneurs: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain. Jonathan Ortmans
Reversing the Brain Drain in Africa. The African Diaspora Policy Centre.
Engaging the Diaspora to Deal with Brain Drain. The World Bank.
Reversing Brain Drain In South Africa And A Turn Towards Brain Gain – A Draft Concept Paper. University of Texas.
Reversing Africa’s Brain Drain: the AfricaRecruit Initiative and the Challenge to Governments, the Diaspora and the Private Sector. Mohan Kaul. AfricaRecruit.com
South African Diaspora: Brain Drain or Gain? Rhynie Greef. Daily News. November 29, 2011.
From ‘Brain Drain’ to ‘Brain Gain’ – The Diaspora Option. Mobilizing African Diaspora Professional Networks in Europe for Health Sector Human Resource Needs in Sub-Saharan Africa. University of Warwick. 2011.
The New African Diaspora: Engaging the Question of Brain Drain – Brain Gain. Akanmu Adebayo. 2011.
The African “Brain Drain” to the North: Pitfalls and Possibilities. Paul Zeleza. African Issues.
Brain Gain: Skilled Diaspora Return to Africa. Phephelaphi Dube. ConsultancyAfrica.com. September 2, 2010.
Brain Drain to Brain Gain: What are the Implications for Higher Education in Africa? Christopher B. Mugimu. Comparative & International Higher Education 2 (2010).
How Nigeria can turn its brain drain to brain gain – Phillip Emeagwali. Mideno Bayagbon. May 5, 2010
Understanding the Brain-Drain in the African Diaspora: Focusing on Nigeria. Jessica Adefusika. Digital Commons@URI. May 2010.
Brain Drain-Brain Gain: Leveraging the Nigerian Diaspora for the Revitalization of Nigerian Higher Education. Akanmu Adebayo. CVCNigeria.org. April 14, 2010.
Four Ways Brain Drain out of Africa is a Good Thing. Laura Freschi. February 17, 2010
Letters: So-called brain drain proving a net gain for developing countries. Debo Akande. People who left for Europe and America are now helping their home countries to progress – it’s time to involve them in development policy and planning
Mobilising the Diaspora: UNESCO and HP create a virtual “brain gain” for African and Arab universities. Can brain drain become brain gain? 29 March 2010
Turning brain drain into “brain gain”. UNESCO and HP join forces to help universities in Africa and the Middle East.
A Pilot Project to Reverse Brain Drain to Brain Gain in Africa. Martin Antony Walker.
Africa – Q&A – The World Bank and the African Diaspora. Oct 9, 2008
African Migration and the Brain Drain. David Shinn. June 20, 2008
Brain Drain, Waste or Gain? What we know about the Kenyan Case. Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere. March 20, 2007
Africa’s Options: Return, Retention or Diaspora? SciDev.Net. Wisdom J. Tetley. May 1, 2003.
Scientific Diasporas: A New Approach to the Brain Drain. Jean-Baptiste Meyer and Mercy Brown. UNESCO.org. 1999.
Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Ainalem Tebeje.Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD). Feb 2005.
A diaspora and its good deeds. Clyde Sanger. February 2005
Semantics Aside: the Role of the African Diaspora in Africa’s Capacity Building Efforts. Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD) & International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
“Semantics Aside” Power Point Presentation by Ainalem Tebeje
Mobilizing Ethiopians Living Abroad for the Development of Ethiopia. Ainalem Tebeje and Clyde Sanger. September 2004.
Stopping The Brain Drain From Africa: Their Loss, Our Gain. Ainalem Tebeje and Clyde Sanger.
Reversing the Brain Drain, Harnessing the Diaspora. Special Feature. eAfrica – The Electronic Journal of Governance and Innovation. September 2003. South African Institute of International Affairs
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and The Foundation for Democracy in Africa (FDA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding, to reverse the effect of the “Brain Drain” on African Countries. Press Release, Washington DC – April 04, 2005.
Africa’s “Brain Gain”: Whose Shibboleth? Atieno Odhiambo. December 2004
Brain Drain in Africa: Facts & Figures
How Africa is Courting its Exiles. E. Blunt. BBC News, 17 October 2004.
Former UNESCO Boss Cites Reasons for Africa’s Brain Drain. Panapress, 9 October 2004.
Brain Drain in Africa – African Medical and Research Foundation
Africa’s Health-care Brain Drain. New York Times, 13 August 2004
A Foot in Each Country. Adrian Cho. Science Magazine. 28 May 2004. Many foreign-born scientists who succeed in the United States are helping those they left behind–without leaving their new home
How networking can help mitigate the brain drain. David Dickson. 24 November 2003. SciDev.Net
Nigerians in Diaspora Critical to FDI. Bright Ewulu. Daily Trust. 11 May 2004
Harnessing Remittances for Economic Development: A Case for Remittance Policy in Ghana. Y. Sophism. 12 Sept 2003.
From Brain Drain To Brain Circulation: Can Ghana Harness Its Human Capital Abroad For Development? Yaw Sophism. 15 August 2003
Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora (CIAD) – 7-9 Oct 2004 – Speeches, Reports, Etc. Final Report
International Migration and Development in Africa and Related ECA and Partnership Activities. UN Economic Commission for Africa. 30 September 2004
Mobilizing Africa’s Intellectual Diaspora. Damtew Teferra. International Higher Education, Spring 2004
Brain Circulation: Unparalleled Opportunities, Underlying Challenges, and Outmoded Presumptions. Damtew Teferra. October 2004.
Brain Drain and Mobility – Bibliography of Recent Publications, International Network for Higher Education in Africa.
Revisiting the Doctrine of Human Capital Mobility in the information Age. Damtew Teferra. In Sibry Tapsoba et al. (Eds.), Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. International Development Research Center (IDRC),International Organization for Migration (IOM ), and Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).
Unleashing the Forces of the Diaspora: Capitalizing on Brain Drain in the Era of Information and Communication Technologies. Damtew Teferra. In Diasporas Scientifiques–Scientific Diasporas, Part II, Collection Expertise Collégiale. 2003. IRD Editions: Paris.
Scientific Communication in African Universities: External Assistance and National Needs. Damtew Teferra. 2003. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook. Damtew Teferra & P. G. Altbach (Eds.). 2003. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
Knowledge Dissemination in Africa: The Role of Scholarly Journals. Philip G. Altbach & Damtew Teferra (Eds.). Bellagio Studies in Publishing, 8. Boston College, MA: Bellagio Publishing Network. 1998
Africa’s options: return, retention or diaspora? Wisdom J Tettey. May 2003. An analysis of the brain drain in Africa, looking at the ideas that have guided efforts to address the problem, suggests ways of harnessing the continent’s intellectual resources to its socio-economic and political development.
Africa’s brain drain: exploring possibilities for its positive utilization through networked communities. Wisdom J Tettey. 2002. Mots Pluriels 20
An Action Plan to Prevent Brain Drain: Building Equitable Health Systems in Africa. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR). 2004
The Brain Drain in Africa – An Emerging Challenge to Health Professionals’ Education. D. Dovlo. Journal of Higher Education in Africa. 2004
“Human Resources for Health: Overcoming the Crisis”. Global Health Trust’s Joint Learning Initiative. 2004
Online resources on brain drain of health professionals from Africa DatelineHealth-Africa.net
Global Workshop on Leveraging Diasporas of the Highly Skilled – Buenos Aires, Argentina – April 26-27, 2005
MOBILIZATION OF DIASPORAS FOR KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER. Yevgeny Kuznetsov, The World Bank
Leveraging National Science & Technology and Business Talent Abroad. Yevgeny Kuznetsov. World Bank. April 26, 2005
From Brain Drain to Gain: Operational Implications of International Mobility of Human Capital. Yevgeny Kuznetsov. World Bank. 2005
Work Globally, Develop Locally: Diaspora Networks as Springboards of Knowledge-Based Development.Yevgeny Kuznetsov. World Bank. Examines ways to increase the chances that the migration of high-skill workers benefits sending countries.
THE DYNAMICS OF SKILLED LABOR MIGRATION: WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT THE BRAIN DRAIN? David Ellerman, University of California at Riverside
DIASPORAS AND DEVELOPMENT. Richard Davone
INDIA’S TRANSFORMATION TO KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY – EVOLVING ROLE OF THE INDIAN DIASPORA. Abhishek Pandey, Alok Aggarwal, Richard Devane and Yevgeny Kuznetsov, Everserves
THE ROLE OF HOME ORGANIZATIONS IN HOME COUNTRIES: GLOBALSCOT AND SCOTTISH ENTERPRISE. Mairi MacRae and Martin Wight
DIASPORA’S CONTRIBUTION TO ARMENIA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: WHAT DRIVES THE FIRST MOVERS AND HOW THEIR EFFORTS COULD BE SCALED UP? Victoria Minoian and Lev Freinkman, The World Bank
ROLE OF DIASPORA IN FACILITATING PARTICIPATION IN GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS: LESSONS OF RED CALDAS IN COLOMBIA. Fernando Chaparro, Hernán Jaramillo and Vladimir Quinteros
Reversing Ethiopia’s Brain Drain: A National Imperative: Part 1. Yosef Yacob – 2005
Ethiopia wants skilled Diaspora to return. afrol News, 11 November 2004
Reversing the Brain Drain In Ethiopia. David H. Shinn. November 23, 2002.
Brain drain makes the quality of higher education to deteriorate: Better address than to be proud of the brain drain, The Reporter (Ethiopia)
The Diaspora as National Capacity Development Strategy (Ethiopia). March 2003
Diaspora Skills, Remittance Said Huge Potential for Ethiopian Development. 31 March 2004
UN Volunteers in Ethiopia
Mobilizing Ethiopians Living Abroad for the Development of Ethiopia
IOM says the Diaspora Keen to Contribute to Country’s Development (Ethiopia). August 9 2004.
Looking Beyond Remittances. B. Yosef. Addis Fortune Magazine. December 19, 2004.
Leveraging Diaspora Skills and Remittances for Development (Ethiopia). 02 April 2004
Reversing Brain Drain: A Personal Testimony. Hailemeskel Bisrat. Addis Tribune. 28 Jan 2005.
Brain Drain: Putting Africa between a Rock and a Hard Place. Mohamed A. El-Khawas. Mediterranean Quarterly. Fall 2004
Academics streaming out of Africa. BBC News. 25 March 04
Why is Africa losing its best brains? BBC News. 19 March 2004. Thousands of Africa’s professionals and students are leaving the continent for better prospects in Europe, USA or India. Includes readers’ comments.
Harnessing the Twin Resources Of Africa: People and Natural Resources for Sustainable Development. United Nations University. 10 June 2004. Summary of the UNU/INRA panel.
France pledges support for ‘scientific diasporas’. Sally Goodman. 21 November 2003. SciDev.Net
South Africa shows the value of the diaspora option. Mercy Brown. 22 May 2003. SciDev.Net
Policy implications of the brain drain’s changing face. Jean-Baptiste Meyer. May 2003.
Impact of skilled migration on receiving countries. Mark C Regets. May 2003.
Reversing Africa’s ‘Brain Drain’: New Initiatives Tap Skills of African Expatriates. G. Mutume. Africa Recovery, July 2003.
The need for policies that meet the needs of all. B. Lindsay Lowell. May 2003.
Networking lessons from Taiwan and South Korea. Hah-Zoong Song. May 2003. How networking – both personal and institutional – plays a crucial role in managing brain circulation.
Halting Africa’s health brain drain. BBC News World Edition. 19 May 2003
Africa Brain Drain: 70,000 Scholars Leave Yearly. D. Odumasi-Ashanti. Ghanaian Chronicle, 13 March 2003
The turning tide of Africa’s brain drain. BBC News. 14 March 03
Brain Drain to Brain Gain – Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. UNESCO
Diasporas, Brain Drain and Return. 2002. Assouman Yao Honoré
Unifem’s Digital Diaspora Initiative: Fostering E-Quality In Africa. Laketch Dirasse. World Bank Gender and Digital Divide Seminar Series. May 21, 2002
Capacity Development Resource Center (CDRC) Website – World Bank
World Bank Capacity Day (June 8, 2005): Capacity Matters: Operational Implications [Includes: “Capacity Development Strategies: Lessons from Africa” (Session Two)]
Capacity Building in Africa: an OED Evaluation of World Bank Support. April 2005
Joint Workshop on Capacity Building:”Effective States and Engaged Societies“. Opening Remarks. Workshop co-sponsored by the African Development Bank (AfDB), the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa ( UNECA) and the World Bank. February 24 – 25, 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Building State Capacity in Africa. Sahr Kpundeh and Brian Levy, editors. World Bank. September 2004
Towards a More Strategic Approach to Capacity Building in Africa. World Bank. Africa Regional Capacity Building Strategy Paper
The World Bank and Civil Society Development: Exploring Two Courses of Action for Capacity Building.Gabriel Siri. World Bank. 2002
Capacity Building: A New Way of Doing Business for Development Assistance Organizations. Policy Brief No. 6: Institute On Governance, Ottawa, Canada. 2000
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Migration for Development in Africa (MIDA)
World Migration Report 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration
Migration and Development – IOM
Partnership for Brain Gain and Capacity Building in Africa. International Organization for Migration.
Reversing Africa’s Brain Drain: Commonwealth Business Council – Africa Recruit. Press Release. 19 February 2003
Reversing Africa’s brain drain. Michael Johnson, Commonwealth Business Council
Seminar Offers Remedies For Africa’s ‘Brain Drain – Sept 2004.
Akina Mama wa Afrika (AMwA)
Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD)
Association of Nigerians Abroad
EthiopianDiaspora.info – Net bid to bring Ethiopians home. BBC News
Medact – Health Brain Drain
Nigerians in Diaspora (NIDO) – Americas
Nigerians in Diaspora (NIDO)– Netherlands
Southern African Migration Project. Migration Resources: Brain Drain Resources
South African Network of Citizens Abroad (SANSA)
AFFORD – The African Foundation for Development (UK) – Diaspora, Migration and Development
Mobilising Africa’s diaspora for development
Globalisation and Development: A Diaspora Dimension (AFFORD’s response to DFID’s 1997 White Paper on international development)
Harnessing Mobility and Identity for Africa’s Transformation
Aid agencies interventions in Africa – Helping to create brain gain?
Can NEPAD harness the African diaspora’s developmental efforts?
Contributions by African organisations in the UK to Africa’s development
Target Africa 2015 (PDF) – development awareness, networking & lifelong learning among African organizations in London, African Diaspora and Development Day (ad3)
TOKTEN Programme – Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals. UNESCO
The Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22 – 24 February 2000. Background Documents. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Report – Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa.
From Brain Drain to Brain Gain: Africa’s Agenda for Training, Retaining and Using its Human Resources Effectively. Synthesis of papers presented at the Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-24 February 2000.
Regional Conference on Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-24 February 2000.
Report of the Conference
Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Tapsoba, S. J. M., Kassoum, S. Houenou, P. V., One, B., Sethi, M., and Ngu, J. (Eds.). (2000). Joint publication of the Economic Commission for Africa, the International Development Research Centre, and the International Organization for Migration.
Using the Intellectual Diaspora to Reverse the Brain Drain: Some Useful Examples. Mercy Brown, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa: The Gambian Experience
UN Tackles African Brain Drain. V. Gidley-Kitchin. BBC News. 22 February 2000
Africa’s Brain Drain Slows Development. David Johnson. africana.com. March 02, 2000
Development – Africa: Best and Brightest Head West. T. Deen. IPS, 10 February, 1999
Investing in Return: Rates of Return of African Ph.D.s Trained in North America. Mark Pires, Ronald Kassimir & Mesky Brhane. 1999. Social Science Research Council
The International Symposium on Global Mobilization of Intellectual Resources for the Development and Stability of Africa. 25-26 February 1998. Co-Chairs’ Summary. The United Nations University Africa Network
Diaspora Interest in Homeland Investment. Kate Gillespie et al. Journal of International Business Studies, 1999
Palestinian Interest in Homeland Investment. Kate Gillespie, Edward Sayre, and Liesl Riddle. The Middle East Journal, Spring 2001
Migration can aid development. Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah. Financial Times. 13 April 2005
Outward bound: Do developing countries gain or lose when their brightest talents go abroad?. The Economist.September 26, 2002
The International Mobility of Talent and its Impact on Global Development: An Overview. Andrés Solimano.January 12, 2005. UN-ECLAC
Skilled Migration: The Perspective of Developing Countries. Frederic Docquier & Hillel Rapoport. World Bank. 2004.
Migration and Development: The Role of the World Bank. United Nations. 22 October 2004
International Migration in the Arab Region and Suggestions for Key Actions. League of Arab States. United Nations. October 2004
Diaspora helping India to retain edge in outsourcing. 30 September 2004.
Digital diasporas and international development: Afghan-Americans and the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff. Public Administration and Development. 2004
Diasporas, Development and ICTs (includes list of Diaspora Networks)
Armenia and Its Diaspora: Is There Scope for a Stronger Economic Link? Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan & David A. Grigorian. Armenian Forum 3, 2003. The Gomidas Institute
The value of brain export. Up to 10% brain drain could be good for poorer countries. Dorrit van Dalen. 25 October 2003
International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain: A World Bank Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. June 2003.
Report of the expert meeting on migration, brain drain and development. Nuffic, 11 December, 2003.
Rethinking the Brain Drain. Oded Stark. ZEF-Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 71, Center for Development Research (ZEF), Bonn, June 2003.
Brain Circulation: How High Skill Immigration Makes Everyone Better Off. A. Saxenian. The Brookings Review.2002
International Mobility of the Highly Skilled. Organization for Economic Cooperation Development, 2002
International Migration: An Emerging Opportunity for the Socio-economic Development. UNESCAP
Policy Research on Migration and Development: A Survey
The Brain Drain: Old Myths, New Realities. M. Cervantes and D. Guellec. OECD Observer, May 2002
The Brain Drain: Curse or Boom? Simon Commander et al. May 2002
Transnational Networks and Skilled Labour Migration. Steven Vertovec. February 2002
When the Best Brains Go Abroad: Emerging markets need not ignore the resources and contributions of their expatriates. Janamitra Devan & Tewari Parth. McKinsey Quarterly. September 2001
The Bangalore Boom: From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation? Anna Lee Saxenian. In Kennistan, Kenneth & Deepak Kumar eds., Bridging the Digital Divide: Lessons from India (Bangalore: National Institute of Advanced Study, 2000).
Diasporas & Technology Transfer. Devesh Kapur. Journal of Human Development, 2001
Role of the Diasporas in Transition Economies: Lessons From Armenia. Lev M. Freinkman
Migration as a source of growth: The perspective of a developing country. Fabien Postel-Vinay & Manon Domingues Dos Santos. Journal of Population Economics. 2003.
Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence. Michel Beine, Frederic Docquier & Hillel Rapoport.Journal of Development Economics, 2001.
Ethnic Chinese Networks In International Trade. James E. Rauch & Vitor Trindade. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 2002.
How Big is the Brain Drain?. William Carrington & Enrica Detragiache. IMF Working Papers, 1998. International Monetary Fund.
A brain gain with a brain drain. Oded Stark, Christian Helmenstein & Alexia Prskawetz, Economics Letters,1997.
An Economic Model of the Brain Drain. Viem Kwok & Hayne Leland, American Economic Review, 1982.
Skilled Labour Migration (The ‘Brain Drain’) From Developing Countries: Analysis of Impact and Policy Issues.International Labour Organization. 2002
List of Project Reports
Synthesis report: “Migration of Highly Skilled Persons from Developing Countries: Impact and Policy Responses
Skilled labor migration from developing countries: Study on South and Southern Africa. Haroon Bhorat, Jean-Baptiste Meyer and Cecil Mlatsheni
Some Developmental Effects of the International Migration of Highly Skilled Persons. B. Lindsay Lowell, ILO Geneva, 2002
Policy Responses to the International Mobility of Skilled Labour. B. Lindsay Lowell, ILO Geneva, 2002
Migration of Highly Skilled Persons from Developing Countries: Impact and Policy Responses. Synthesis Report, ILO Geneva, 2002